With the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for organic and green foods that are safe, sanitary and non-polluting is increasing. Farmers urgently need to apply organic fertilizers to improve the market competitiveness of agricultural products. Organic fertilizers are rich in organic matter and nutrients needed for crop growth. They not only provide the nutrients needed for crop growth, improve the soil, maintain soil fertility, but also improve crop quality and promote high yield and stability of crops.Do organic fertilizers have so many benefits? How are the benefits of organic fertilizers achieved?
1. Organic fertilizer can increase photosynthesis intensity
In the process of continuous mineralization in the soil, organic fertilizer can supply a variety of nutrients necessary for crops for a long time, and can also supply a variety of active substances, which can not only nourish plants, but also stimulate crop growth and strengthen soil. Microbial activity to increase the effectiveness of soil nutrients. In the process of decomposition of organic fertilizers, a large amount of CO2 is produced for crops to assimilate carbon. The photosynthesis intensity of plants is within a certain range of CO2 concentration, and increases linearly with the increase of CO2. Tests have shown that increasing the concentration of CO2 can increase crop yield by more than 10%. Organic fertilizers are rich in carbon sources and are important for promoting crop growth and increasing yield.
2. Organic fertilizer can improve soil cultivation and water retention capacity
After the organic fertilizer enters the soil, it is decomposed by microorganisms and condensed into new humus. It can combine with clay and calcium ions in the soil to form an organic-inorganic complex, which promotes the formation of water-stable aggregate structure in the soil, thus coordinating the soil. The contradiction between water, fertilizer, gas and heat. Reduce the soil bulk density, improve the soil's cohesiveness and adhesion, and make the ploughing better.
Because the humus is porous and porous, its adhesion and cohesive force are smaller than clay and larger than sand, so it can not only improve the looseness and aeration of the viscous soil, but also change the loose state of the sand. The dark color of humus can increase the heat absorption capacity of the soil and improve the thermal condition of the soil. The humus loose porous water-absorbing water storage capacity can improve the water retention capacity of the soil.
3. Organic fertilizer can improve soil fertility
Soil organic matter is one of the main indicators for measuring the level of fertility, the material basis of soil fertility, and the source of material for replenishing and renewing soil organic matter. When organic fertilizer is applied, (1) the organic fertilizer consumed is continuously replenished. Chemical fertilizer alone, not a few years, the soil structure is destroyed and tied. (2) Continuously increase soil organic matter content. The soil organic matter content in most areas of China is relatively low. Except for the higher organic matter content in the black soil region of Northeast China, it can reach 2.5%-7.5%. Most of the areas in North China and Northwest China are less than 1%, and the organic matter content in the paddy fields in Central China and South China is slightly higher. , up to 1.5% to 3.5%. In addition, the dryland area rarely reaches more than 2%, of which the organic matter content of cultivated land below 0.5% also accounts for 10.6% of the existing cultivated land in China. (3) Continuously update soil organic matter. The conversion of organic fertilizers into soil organic matter accounts for about two-thirds of the annual formation of soil organic matter. It can be seen that organic fertilizers must be supplemented to continuously update soil organic matter. It is clear that the application of organic fertilizers to increase soil fertility is very important.
4.Organic fertilizer can reduce environmental pollution
Long-term application of chemical fertilizers will increase the number of soil pathogens. If not treated in time, it will spread germs, increase the concentration of ammonia, nitrate and soluble organic nitrogen in groundwater, and eutrophication of surface and groundwater, resulting in deterioration of environmental quality and even endangering. To the survival of living things. Therefore, the rational use of organic fertilizers can not only reduce environmental pollution, but also reduce the investment of chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizers can also adsorb and bind toxic metal cations such as copper and lead, increasing the fixation of arsenic.
5. Organic fertilizer can improve product quality
A single application of fertilizer or improper ratio of nutrients will reduce product quality. Practice has shown that the combination of organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer can improve product quality, such as increasing protein content in wheat and corn kernels. The combined application rate was improved compared with the single application of fertilizer. The protein content of wheat increased by 1%, the gluten increased by 2.3%, and the total nitrogen of the grain increased by 0.19%. Studies by the Soil and Fertilizer Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences have shown that the irrational and excessive application of nitrogen fertilizers has significantly increased the nitrate content of vegetables, especially the edible parts of cabbage, spinach and lettuce, with nitrates as high as 1000 μg/g. It can reach 1700μg/g, while the manure area is only 200-500μg/g, and the lowest is only tens of μg/g. For tomatoes and cauliflower, the combination of organic and inorganic fertilizers can increase the content of vitamin C by 16.6-20.0 μg/g.
6. Organic fertilizer is conducive to high yield and stable yield of crops
The hydroxyl group of the humic molecule, the phenolic hydroxyl group or the alcoholic hydroxyl group can dissociate the H ion in water. The humus is negatively charged, so it can adsorb a large amount of cations and exchange with the cations in the soil solution, thereby improving the fertilizer retention ability of the soil. It can be seen from the above that the application of organic fertilizer can effectively fertilize the soil, which is conducive to high yield and stable yield.
Therefore, the promotion and application of organic fertilizers in China is in line with the requirements of “accelerating the construction of a resource-saving and environment-friendly society”, promoting the harmonious development of agriculture and resources, agriculture and the environment, and between man and nature, and promoting the safety and cleanliness of agricultural products from the source. Production and protection of the ecological environment are of great significance.
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